Parasitism

Commensalism requires one animal, the host, to accept the presence of another, without receiving anything for it, which, in itself, is not very complicated from an evolutionary point of view. Mutualism requires one animal to give advantages to another while at the same time receiving benefits from the other. At first sight this probably seems…

Mutualism

Mutualisms are close, long-term relationships between two species where both species benefit from the relationship. Mutualisms can, just as commensalisms, be obligate or facultative. They can also be endosymbiotic, that is one species living inside another, or ectosymbiotic, which is one species living on the surface of the other. One relationship that during a long…

Symbiosis and commensalism

On my day job part of my time is used to teach ecology for undergraduates in biology. Maybe not such a surprise, many of the best examples of interactions between species that I use in my teaching come from marine ecosystems. This is especially true when dealing with symbiosis theory. Symbiosis means “together living”, and…

Seahorses and their relatives.

Lembeh is a very good place for seahorse hunting. Not only does Lembeh have several “proper” seahorses, which is medium-sized fish, looking like a seahorse should look like but also at least three pygmy seahorses, a number of pipefish and the almost iconic Lembeh sea dragon as well as their relatives, ornate ghost pipefish and…

Cephalopods or headfootings!

Invertebrates are in general stupid animals. Mussels, snails, and most other members of the mollusk group would certainly score pretty low on any scale of creative brightness, but their life style on the other hand does not require a brilliant mind. The only exception is the cephalopods, translated from greek as headfoot, such as the…

Cowrie-day in Lembeh

The molluscs is a big and very diverse group consisting of animals as different as a mussel and an octopus! Most colorful and strikingly patterned among the molluscs are the cowries, used as currency in different cultures over time and now prized collector items due to their shining and often brightly coloured and patterned shell.…

Frogfish!!!

Frogfishes! Always fun to see and wherever they are found often the stars of the local diving critters. Lembeh delivers frogfish in so many shapes, sizes, and colours, that you could spend a week or more just checking out the varieties here in the strait. Well, maybe not shapes as most are more or less…