In every documentary I have seen and book I have read about Lembeh, it is stated that the waters of Lembeh are exceptionally productive partly due to the currents that bring nutritious water through Lembeh strait regularly, partly due the black lava sand more or less defining Lembeh that leaks nutrients into the water. It is easy to envision that such an environment with loads of biological production would be very nice to live in for the creatures inhabiting the strait.
Surprisingly enough, evolution seems to have been working overtime in Lembeh, partly shaping the foraging skills of the animals here, but even more obviously perfecting their skills of evading predators. Why is the pressure on prey animals tougher here in the seemingly benign waters of the strait than in other less productive environments?
Mathematical models of predator and prey populations give us the answer. For every population there will be a maximum number of individuals that the environment can provide for. This number is called the carrying capacity of a population. If one increases the carrying capacity for a prey population, the prey population will increase the number of offspring that is produced. However, if there are predators around, predators will take advantage of the increase in the reproduction of the prey population, and the predators will increase their population size, leaving the prey at a low but very productive density. Thus every prey individual alive will be faced with a much higher risk of being killed by a predator than in a less productive environment, setting the scene for evolution to try out more and more bizarre and elaborate ways for the prey to survive the onslaught of the predators. Obviously there will be competition between prey on being safer than anyone else which will feed evolution with a drive to use whatever genetic variance giving anyone an advantage over conspecifics or individuals of other species.
Why stay here then? Is there really anything good at all living in productive environments then given that you as prey face a never-ending threat from predators? Well, it turns out that the alternative is just as bad. In prey populations that are controlled by food availability rather than predators, prey will reach densities where the food resources are heavily used and most everyone is on the verge of starving to death. The sad truth about being an animal in nature is that, with very few exceptions, you either live a life where every day is a constant struggle to make ends meet, feeding on the very scarce resources not already being utilized by someone else, or you live in constant fear of being torn in pieces by something bigger and fiercer than you are! Sucks, doesn´t it!
Luckily for me, as I really enjoy exquisite examples of prey adaptations to evade predators, many prey animals in Lembeh will be on the “lots of food around, but holy smoke it is scary here” end of the scale. Every dive here will give even a first time diver in the area many examples of what living in such an environment does to prey animals. Also, as a nice side effect, the strait is littered with predators, which we will get back to in a later blog.